Managing the Top 5 Mainframe Security Vulnerabilities with Splunk Dashboards
Despite popular belief, the mainframe isn’t immune to external threats and attacks.
Taking mainframe security for granted, or managing it in a silo, can put your mission-critical applications and customer data (even your business) at risk. To keep their systems safe, organizations are adding their mainframe data to Splunk Dashboards, getting the enterprise-wide view they need to quickly respond to security vulnerabilities, no matter where and when they happen.
Read this eBook to learn what vulnerabilities puts the mainframe at risk, and how using Splunk helps you stay secure.
For a long time the IBM z/OS mainframe platform has been viewed as “inherently” secure, implying that the platform is secure by virtue of its foundational design. This myth has led many mainframe organizations to believe that hardly anything needs to be done to augment the platform to keep it secure. The assumption that the mainframe is “bulletproof,” combined with the slow but steady decline in mainframe-specific security expertise, has resulted in mainframe security being taken for granted in many organizations.
However, the rise in data and security breaches worldwide has forced C-level executives to stand up and take notice. The risk of non-compliance with the growing mass of governmental regulations and industry standards is causing loss of sleep as the C-suite faces more rigorous levels of responsibility for the integrity of enterprise data than did its predecessors. Potential penalties for failure of oversight are greater – fines and potentially jail sentences, not to mention the damage to the corporate brand when a breach becomes public.
In this eBook we will examine some of the risks and threats to mainframe security along with the data sources that can be leveraged to help address the threats and contain the risks using Splunk Dashboards.
A Brief Overview of Mainframe Security Solutions
There are three primary security solutions that exist in the IBM z/OS mainframe environment: IBM Resource Access Control Facility (RACF), CA ACF/2, and CA Top Secret. All are similar in scope providing controls over what can be done within z/OS by protecting defined resources. Security is provided by:
- Identifying and verifying users
- Authorizing users to access protected resources
- Recording and reporting access attempts
All require a security administrator to define resources, users, user groups, and the access rights to resources as well as access levels of individual users and groups. When access is attempted for a resource, the security system of choice is invoked to make a determination as to whether the user attempting access has rights to the resource. The security system either allows or denies the access, and records a security event for the access attempt.
Splunk Enterprise Security Meets the Mainframe
The Splunk® Enterprise data integration and indexing platform brings together machine data from all of an organization’s IT systems, regardless of the nature of the operating systems or of any other platform-specific characteristics. Splunk Enterprise Security (ES) is a SIEM solution that allows you to gather all the context you need in one view to perform rapid security investigations and respond to them as soon as possible. The Splunk ES application provides insights into all manner of potential threat indicators generated by networks and endpoints across the enterprise. It delivers those insights through alerts, reports, and visualizations, including dozens of customizable dashboards. It streamlines all aspects of security operations and is suitable as the basis of a security operations center for organizations of all sizes and levels of expertise.
Mainframe customers needing to integrate their security information into Splunk ES need an additional solution to forward the important machine data from the mainframe to the Splunk installation. Precisely’s Ironstream for Splunk normalizes and streams z/OS log data (i.e., Syslog, SyslogD, SMF, RMF, Log4j, SYSOUT) as well as z/OS security information and maps it to the Splunk ES Common Information Model (CIM). This enables Splunk ES to provide a true enterprisewide view of security activity, threats, and intrusions.
The next section will highlight how the flexible dashboards in Spunk can be used to visualize and analyze the mainframe data to address the top mainframe security vulnerabilities.
Splunk Enterprise Security Meets the Mainframe
Managing the security issues for mainframe environments can be complex and challenging. There are many potential threats and vulnerabilities that a security administrator needs to consider. Let’ take a look at the top five security issues for today’s mainframe and how utilizing Splunk dashboards can provide critical help with monitoring and visualizing these security issues.
1. Weak Access Controls and
As mentioned earlier, the security system works well provided that everything is defined correctly – resources, users, access rights, etc. Expertise in security administration is needed to setup resources, users, groups, and access rights correctly. It’s no secret that we have experienced a decline in mainframe expertise over the past few years as an aging workforce continues to retire and be replaced by a new generation of technologists with less mainframe subject matter expertise.
2. User IDs
Incorrect definition of users including no password expiration for a defined user, incorrect or too high of a security privilege, along with weak passwords or default passwords that go unchanged due to no expiration, all create risk within the mainframe environment. It opens up a window or door for threat. Studies indicate 1/3 of all data breaches have been attributed to insiders within an organization. This might include employees, contractors, vendors, business partners, or others who have been granted access to resources within the organization. In a lot of cases, it is simply poor security administration resulting in unwarranted access that can be detected and resolved within an audit. However, in some cases an employee who has privileged access might simply neglect basic security precautions mandated by the organization. In worse scenarios a disgruntled or misguided ex-employee that still has credentials could pose a real threat,or employees simply get duped by an outsider phising for credentials to get at valuable data.
3. Dataset and Resource Access
It’s not just incorrect user definitions or weak security administration for users that results in risk. Many times the resources themselves are not protected appropriately. Protection might be too general, with too many users and applications being granted access that shouldn’t have the rights. Therefore, it might be essential to provide an additional level of security monitoring to ensure that critical dataset resources are not being accessed by undesired users.
4. Data Vulnerability
The mainframe no longer operates as an isolated component. In most organizations the mainframe is part of a complex IT infrastructure that includes distributed systems all networked together to enable a highly efficient processing environment with data moving freely between the different platforms. Incorrect data coming into the mainframe or secure data leaving the mainframe is a real threat for these type of infrastructures. Files being transferred between platforms must be well monitored so we can effectively identify what is coming in, what is going out, who is sending it in, and who is sending it out, to ensure the integrity of valuable data assets within an organization.
5. Network Intrusion
As mentioned earlier, the mainframe is no longer an isolated component, but part of a larger IT infrastructure with a network ecosystem making it susceptible to outside attacks. Networks are the single biggest point of attack, and therefore they must be diligently monitored to look for unwanted port scans, Denial of Service (DoS) attacks, network flood attacks, malformed network packets, and other intrusions whereby someone from the outside is trying to block access to critical services or get in to compromise an organization and its critical data assets.
Mainframe Security Checklist
TSO Logon Activity
- Monitor for high “invalid” logon activity and locked user IDs for attempted breaches
- Monitor logon activity for users based on location and time of day
- Detect logon pattern anomalies that could indicate a breach
TSO Account Activity
- Monitor account creation, update, deletion
- Validate defined authorization and access rights for users and groups
- Ensure password expiration periods are set for users
- Ensure defined passwords meet security requirements
Critical Dataset Monitoring
- Ensure only authorized users and groups are accessing critical datasets
- Monitor unauthorized access attempts
File Transfer (FTP) Activity
- Ensure only authenticated users are sending or receiving files
- Monitor FTP file activity including file modification, download, creation, deletion
- Track inbound and outbound files along with who is initiating the transfer
- Monitor port scans (fast and slow)
- Monitor flood attacks (interface floods, SYN attacks
- Denial of Service – DoS)
- Perform malformed packet detection
IP Traffic Analysis
- Monitor IP component usage (TCP, UDP, Stack, tn3270 etc.)
- Monitor network infrastructure events
Mainframe Security Critical Data Sources
TSO Logon Activity: SMF Type 30
|Subtype 1 – Logon activity for TSO users is captured via SMF Type 30, Subtype 1 which records all job and session start activity
TSO Account Activity: SMF Type 80
|Creation, updates, deletion and lockout activity for TSO accounts are captured. For RACF the following commands are recorded:
SMF Type 80 Event Code Qualifier (7) is used for LOCKOUT detection:
Critical Dataset Access Monitoring: SMF Record Types 14, 15, 17, 30, and 80
|Critical dataset access monitoring requires utilizing 5 different SMF record types.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Session Activity: syslogd Messages EZYFS5nI
|FTP session activity is recorded via the following syslogd messages:
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) File Change Activity: SMF Type 119
|File modification, download, creation and deletion activity is captured in SMF Type 119 records. The following record sub-types are critical:
Intrusion Detection: Traffic Regulation Management Daemon (TRMD) and SYSLOGD
|z/OS implements Intrusion Detection Services (IDS) via the Traffic Regulation Management Daemon (TRMD) which is part of the z/OS Communications Server. TRMD is required to detect and collect intrusion events. The daemon must be configured to collect the following message types, which are recorded to syslogd:
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) File Change Activity: SMF Type 119
|Various IP traffic types (IP, UDP, FTP, Stack activity etc.) are tracked via SMF Type 119 in a variety of record subtypes. Traffic analysis is captured when network connections are terminated. Most critical is:
Network Management/ User-Defined Notifications: Requires a Network Management Component
|Alerts and notifications detected by a network manager can be critical in understanding potential threats and intrusions. These can include events such as broken connections, threshold breaches, or low activity anomalies. User-defined alerts might also be created within the network manager for installation specific condition tracking. An example of a network management component providing these type of capabilities would be Precisely Syncsort.|
The IBM mainframe platform is undeniably one of the most secure server platforms in the world. As an isolated system it is virtually impenetrable from outside attacks. However, in today’s modern IT infrastructures the mainframe resides as a critical processor within the network making it susceptible to external threats and attacks. Furthermore, defined user accounts within the system can always be leveraged to access and compromise secured resources. These types of attacks can occur when account information is maliciously compromised or it simply can occur when employees are disgruntled or careless.
Fortunately, security systems and components within the IBM z/OS mainframe enable critical resources to be protected and provide excellent event recording and logging that can be leveraged to determine potential threats and security risks. In addition to this, many system functions utilize SMF recording to provide an abundance of information related to logons, account changes, and FTP activity to help provide a complete picture of security on the mainframe. Finally, Intrusion Detection Services (IDS) via the Traffic Regulation Management Daemon (TRMD) which is part of the z/OS Communications Server, and alerts/notifications detected by a network manager can be critical in understanding potential threats and intrusions occurring from the outside world.
The information is available as outlined in this eBook – an IT security team simply has to leverage the data sources to effectively monitor for threats and prevent risks to their mainframes.